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The commission did, however, receive some eyewitness evidence alleging abuse by the military which warranted further investigation and, if necessary, the prosecution of perpetrators. The commission acknowledged that hospitals had been shelled, resulting "considerable civilian casualties", but it did not say who was responsible for the shelling. The commission blamed Sinhalese and Tamil politicians for causing the civil war: the Sinhalese politicians failed to offer a solution acceptable to the Tamil people and the Tamil politicians fanned militant separatism.
The commission has been heavily criticised by international human rights groups, the UN Panel of Experts and others due its limited mandate, alleged lack of independence and its failure to meet minimum international standards or offer protection to witnesses. These critics believed that the Sri Lankan government was using the commission as a tool to prevent an independent international investigation of alleged abuses. Linguistic rights are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere.
This article lists aircraft accidents and incidents which resulted in at least 50 fatalities in a single occurrence involving commercial passenger and cargo flights, military passenger and cargo flights, or general aviation flights that have been involved in a ground or mid-air collision with either a commercial or military passenger or cargo flight. Summer Time, begins and ends. During the Sri Lankan Civil War militant groups, paramilitary groups and government security forces were accused of assassinating many public figures on suspicion of being sympathizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent.
This list does not contain assassinations which are listed in a separate article. This article lists some of the aviation accidents and incidents in Sri Lanka from the s to the s. The following is a list of beaches in Sri Lanka, an island nation south of India in the Indian Ocean. The following is a list of settlements in Sri Lanka with a population over 50, The following is a list of commanders of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LTTE , also known as the Tamil Tigers, a separatist militant Tamil nationalist organisation, which operated in northern and eastern Sri Lanka from the late s to May , until it was defeated by the Sri Lankan Military.
The first woman to serve as mayor is believed to be Susanna Madora Salter of the United States who served as mayor of Argonia, Kansas in The following is a list of hospitals in Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Jaffna Teaching Hospital, the biggest government hospital in the province, is controlled by the central government in Colombo. The following is a list of international prime ministerial trips made by Narendra Modi since he became the Prime Minister of India following the Indian general election, This is a list of car bomb attacks including bombs stowed in vans, trucks, buses etc.
The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Sri Lanka and its predecessors numbers may be approximate.
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Following is a List of riots in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is an island nation situated in South Asia. Mahatma Gandhi Road which is also used in its abbreviated form as M. Road, named after Mahatma Gandhi. The Sri Lankan Naval fleet consists of around fifty combat vessels, support ships and inshore patrol craft. This is a timeline of incidents in that have been labelled as "terrorism" and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism. The following is a list of the oldest schools in Sri Lanka that are still functioning.
This is a list of big cities in the world believed to have , or more inhabitants, as of This is a list of towns and cities in the world in alphabetical order, beginning with the letters P, Q, R and S, by country believed to have , or more inhabitants. Francis Lorenz Bevan, MA 30 October — 11 March was an Anglican priest in Sri Lanka during the first half of the Twentieth century: he was the Archdeacon of Jaffna from until ; and after that Archdeacon of Colombo from then until his death.
Ludovico di Varthema, also known as Barthema and Vertomannus c. Luksimi Sivaneswaralingam Born: 26 September , age 27 years , is a playback singer and classical dancer originating from Jaffna, Sri Lanka and based in Toronto, Canada. Brigadier M. Mathangi "Maya" Arulpragasam born 18 July , better known by her stage name M. Maankulam or Mankulam is located in northern Sri Lanka, about 3. Mahatma Gandhi the 'Father of India,' paid a historic visit to Ceylon in Malathi also credited as Malathy is the first female fighter of the Tamil Tigers to die in combat, hence revered as the first female martyr.
Mallakam translit is a town in northern Sri Lanka located approximately north of the city of Jaffna. Mandaithivu sea massacre was a civilian massacre of ethnic Tamils by members of the Sri Lankan Navy off the coast of Mandaitivu island of the Jaffna peninsula. MARCOS, previously named as Marine Commando Force MCF , is the special forces unit of the Indian Navy created for conducting special operations such as amphibious warfare, close quarter combat, counter-terrorism, direct action, special reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, hostage rescue, personnel recovery, combat search and rescue, asymmetric warfare, foreign internal defence, counterproliferation, amphibious reconnaissance including hydrographic reconnaissance.
May Ratnayeke was a Sri Lankan physician, is known for being the second female medical student from that country and its first female doctor. Mirusuvil massacre refers to the massacre and subsequent mass burial of eight Sri Lankan Tamil refugees, including children, on 20 December Mormugao is a sub-district and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. There are 24 Municipal councils in Sri Lanka, which are the legislative bodies that preside over the largest cities and first tier municipalities in the country.
Murugesapillai Koneswary or Koneswary Murugesapillai was a minority Sri Lankan Tamil woman who was raped and killed on 17 May as part of the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. Murugeysen Tiruchelvam was a Sri Lankan Tamil politician, Member of the Senate, government minister and a leading lawyer. Mylvaganam Nimalrajan, also spelt Mylvaganam Nimalarajan was a senior Jaffna based journalist who was shot dead by gunmen in the Sri Lanka Army's high security zone on 19 October October 20, , Jaffna is a Sri Lankan librarian, writer and bibliographer.
Neethan Shanmugarajah translit; born December 24, ; commonly known as Neethan Shan is a Tamil Canadian youth worker and politician. Negombo is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the west coast and at the mouth of the Negombo Lagoon, in Western Province. Olivier Weber born is an award-winning French writer, novelist and reporter at large, known primarily for his coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Operation Balavegaya Operation Power force was a combined military operation launched by the Sri Lankan military in Jaffna, the largest amphibious assault in its history.
Operation Thrividha Balaya was a combined military operation, the first of its kind, launched by the Sri Lankan Military in Jaffna. Padmanabha murder case was a sensational case during the earlier part of in Madras in Tamil Nadu, India and Sri Lanka.
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Palmyra sprout also known as Palmyra Tuber is a sprout that grows on Palmyra palms or Borassus flabellifer. Panushanth Kulenthiran born 26 July in Jaffna is a Sri Lankan professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder or striker for Italian side Senna Gloria and the Tamil Eelam national team. Warrant Officer Class 2 H.
Persecution of Muslims is the religious persecution inflicted upon followers of Islamic faith. Peter Percival 24 July — 11 July was a British born missionary, linguist and a pioneering educator in Sri Lanka and South India during the British colonial era. Pieter de Bitter ca. This article concerns the policies, views and voting record of David Cameron, the previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May to July The Ponnambalam-Coomaraswamy family is a Sri Lankan Tamil Hindu family that was prominent in politics in former Ceylon former name of Sri Lanka from colonial era to The Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom occurred after Portuguese traders arrived at the rival Kotte Kingdom in the southwest of modern Sri Lanka in Portuguese invasion of Jaffna kingdom in AD was the second expedition against the Jaffna kingdom by the Portuguese.
Postal codes in Sri Lanka are five digit numbers used by Sri Lanka Post to sort mail more efficiently. The introduction and early development of printing in South India is attributed to missionary propaganda and the endeavours of the British East India Company. Prohibited airspace refers to an area volume of airspace within which flight of aircraft is not allowed, usually due to security concerns.
In Sri Lanka, provinces translit; translit are the first level administrative division. The purple-faced langur Trachypithecus vetulus , also known as the purple-faced leaf monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that is endemic to Sri Lanka. Raghunatha Nayak was the third ruler of Thanjavur, southern India, from the Nayak dynasty. Raining animals is a rare meteorological phenomenon in which flightless animals fall from the sky. Rameswaram, also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram is a town and a second grade municipality in the Ramanathapuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Rasiah Ranjith Leon born February 6, is a Norwegian entrepreneur who, with Ratheesan Yoganathan and Baskaran Kandiah, is best known as the co-founder of Lebara Group where he still is a Director and one of the controlling shareholders. Ravi Vetrivel born 28 October is a Sri Lankan-Canadian film director, screenwriter, cinematographer and editor.
Rock candy or sugar candy in British English , also called rock sugar, is a type of confection composed of relatively large sugar crystals. Ruins of Jaffna kingdom refer to the remains of the Remaining building structures of Jaffna kingdom, the royal abode and structure of the ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Jaffna, Nallur, Jaffna in Northern Sri Lanka.
Reverend Father S. Swaminathar Kanagaratnam Lawton , known professionally as S. Lawton, was a well known and popular Ceylonese photographer who pioneered various photographic techniques in his home country of Sri Lanka. Sivapathasundaram Mageswaran was the first head of the chemistry department and later Dean of Science Faculty at the University of Jaffna. The chemistry department is part of the Science Faculty, initiated in , one year after the University of Jaffna came into existence. Suppayya Paramu Thamilselvan, commonly known as S.
Tamilselvan, sometimes transcribed as "Tamilchelvan" , Sunday Times, was the leader of the political wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, an organisation fighting for a separate state for the ethnic Tamil minority in northern Sri Lanka from majority Sinhalese government.
Sabapathypillai Illangaratnam was a Sri Lankan cricketer and stalwart of Moratuwa and Bloomfield Cricket club and Bank of Ceylon prior to country obtaining the test status. Kadirgamar Snr was a Ceylonese Sri Lankan proctor. Sarathambal Saravanbavananthatkurukal or better known as Sarathambal was a minority Sri Lankan Tamil woman who was gang raped and killed on 28 December Savakanmaindan or Savakan Maindan, Saavanmaindan and Chavakanmaindan was a monarch of the kingdoms of Tambralinga and Jaffna. Sri Lankan Tamil students V. Gajan were shot dead by police in Kokkuvil in northern Sri Lanka on the night of 20 October A show of force is a military operation intended to warn such as a warning shot or to intimidate an opponent by showcasing a capability or will to act if one is provoked.
Sivaya Subramuniyaswami January 5, — November 12, , also known as Gurudeva by his followers, was born in Oakland, California and adopted Shaivism as a young man. The solar eclipse of January 15, was an annular eclipse of the Sun with a magnitude of 0. Lance Corporal R. Dewage Somaratne Rajapaksa is a Sri Lankan soldier who was sentenced to death for the gang-rape and murder of Krishanti Kumaraswamy and three others. There are literary, archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic sources of ancient Tamil history. Spodoptera mauritia, the lawn armyworm, also known as paddy swarming caterpillar, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
The Sri Lankan state has been accused of state terrorism against the Tamil minority as well as the Sinhalese majority. Class M10 is a mainline diesel-electric locomotive built by Diesel Locomotive Works, India, which is the largest diesel-electric locomotive manufacturer in India, for Sri Lanka Railways and constructed in Sri Lankan cuisine has been shaped by many historical, cultural and other factors. Local elections were held in Sri Lanka on 29 January for 17 local authorities on the Jaffna peninsula, in the north of the country. Sri Lankan Malays also known in Sinhalese language as Ja Minissu meaning Javanese - a catch-all term historically used for all natives of the Malay Archipelago - are a group consisting of about 40, people who make up 0.
Their ancestors initially came to the country when both Sri Lanka and Indonesia were colonies of the Dutch, while a second wave — came from the Malay Peninsula, when both Malaya and Sri Lanka were in the British Empire. Significant Malay presence in Sri Lanka dated as early as 13th century, when Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja, a Malay of Tambralinga managed to occupy northern part of the island in , nonetheless the followers of Chandrabhanu would mostly assimilate to the local population.
Many of the ancestors of present-day Sri Lankan Malays coming from soldiers posted by the Dutch which later continued by the British for colonial administration to Sri Lanka, who decided to settle on the island.
Other immigrants were convicts or members of noble houses from Dutch East Indies present day Indonesia who were exiled to Sri Lanka and who never left. The main source of a continuing Malay identity is their common Malay language, the Islamic faith and their ancestral origin from the Malay Archipelago.
Many Sri Lankan Malays have been celebrated as courageous soldiers, politicians, sportsmen, lawyers, accountants and doctors. Sri Lankan place name etymology is characterized by the linguistic and ethnic diversity of the island of Sri Lanka through the ages and the position of the country in the centre of ancient and medieval sea trade routes. The Sri Lankan presidential election of was the sixth presidential election of Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the s to fight the state of Sri Lanka in order to create an independent Tamil Eelam in the north of Sri Lanka.
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Six hundred Crore years after Subhauma. Margasirsa Sukla EkadaSi. Ibid ; 65'24 ff. It so appened that a Tapasa by name Jamadagni the King of Kanyakubja and had two sons from her. Anyhow the KsalriySn, Chttoamal. He wasChakravarfiSubh! Kuru race Ko. Pausa Krasna DvitiyS. Mallinatha attained to Nirvana from Sammeda Sikhara. Ibid; S. Chakravarti Padma flourished. In old age he adopted the life of a Jaina saint and gained Nirvana. Ihtd; He appeared I atter 54 lacs years since Mallinatha attained j Nirvana.
Munisuvaratanatha adopted : the life of a naked Jaina recluse. Uttarapurana, Ibid, ff. After sixty lac years since Munisuva- ratanatha attained nirvana, TirthSnkara Nami appeared at Mithila. His mother was knovra as Vapradevi. He took his first meal as a monk, after a fast of two days, at the house of Sunayadatta at Rajagraha. Nami practised austerities and penances for full nine years and became an omniscient Teacher. Nami having preached Dharma allround, attained NirvSna from Mt.
Marriage known as Prajyapatya into existence, as a result of the love aflairs of King Pandu and virgin Kunti, who gave birth to a son named Kama. TKe inscription edited here for the first time can now be seen in the Dsga Mahavlra temple, Bikaner. According to local tradition the village was founded by a Dahiya queen of the Chauhan Emperor Prthvlrsja. But this can hardly he true, for Prthviraja flourished in the second quarter of the 13 th and our inscription recording the existence of JangalakQpa belongs to the 4th quarter of the 12th century of the Vikrama era.
The donor was Tilhaka— the son of Nadhaka— who caused the image to be set up for the spiritual welfare of himself as well as his sister Sukls. The inscription is also of importance in as much as it shows the spread of the nidhichaitya movement so eagerly sponsored by many Jain acharyas of the period to such remote regions of Rajputana as the south of Bikaner.
Bhanwarlal Nahta for having brought the inscription to my notice, and also for having prepared its ink impression, for my use. Shall, Ahmedabad, Cr. Vaidya, with Introduction, Notes and glossary of important Prakrit words in English. Bombay Rs. English : — 1, The Discourse Divine. Jain, Vidya-Vandhi 2nd ed.
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Jain-Bauddha Tattva-Jnma. II, pp. Ujain pp, Rs. Select Contents of Oriental Journals. Efigrafhia Indica. XXIIL pts. II, No. Venkatasubbiah -- The YamsiilaJca and the Paachatanra. Diskalkar — Some unpublished Inscrips : of the Ghalu- 4. IV No. R, Sharma — Religious Policy. Jebangir expelled the Jains from bis empire. Jain - Jainism. Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. Translation of Prof. BhuiahaJi Shastn. He points of Ahmedabad pub- leared in Sain M, irua, B. Kuppuswami Sastri, Gananath Sen, id others, each of whc m represents a particular section of Indian ulture.
Among the contributors are the best orientalists of adia and foreign lands including Drs. Keith, rs. A most attractive jet up and printing. Price rety moderately fixed Rs. Vangiya Mahakosa each part , As. Vol No. By Prof. Chakravartl, M. Continned from Vol. IV, No.
II, page The only thing that I want to add to this is the existence of the DrSvida Sangha, otherwise known as Mola Sangha, about the first century B. This fact is mentioned merely for. One other interesting fact which deserves to be mentioned, in this connection, is the reference to the Prakyta language and its prevalence in all countries.
The collection of Satras supposed to be the remnants of the great grammatical work of Agastya contains a section on northern languages, the Sanskritic languages. A reference to this in the Tamil grammar as a language spoken all over the land is a very significant fact in as much as it would imply the early introduction of Prakrta literature and the migration of Prakrta speaking people into the Tamil land. When a person, suffering from illness or otherwise, realises that death is at hand and that it is no use to waste time in drugging the body, he resolves to spend the rest of his life in meditation and prayer.
He no more accepts food or medicine till the end of life. All these facts taken together constrain us to believe that we have traces of Jaina influence discern- able even in the earliest Tamil literature extant, not to speak of the Jaina contributions to the literature with which we are directly concerned. The fact is disputed by some scholars and various views are entertained as to the religion of the author. We shall merely state some of the facts of internal evidence and leave it to the reader to judge for himself.
Though it is a work of grammar, it contains a mine of information about the social Polity of die esarly Tamilians ; and research scholars are mainly dependent upon this work for information relating to the customs and manners of the early Tamilians. It is. This is considered to be an authoritative work on grammar, and all later writers in Tamil language faithfully confornl to the rules of diction enunciated therein. Burnell maintains that the author of the Tolkappiyam was a Buddhist or Jaina and he is one of the unques- tionably old Tamil authors.
It is well known to students of Jaina literature that Pratima Yoga is a Jaina technical term and some Jaina Yogis were spoken of as Pradhana Yogadharis. On this basis, scholars like S. The same author strengthens his conclusion by quoting the sQtras from Tolkappiyam referring to the classification of Jivas according to sense-organs possessed by the Jivas.rehandslotarid.tk
In the section called Mara- biyal Tolkappiyam speaks of Jivas with one sense, such as grass and trees, Jivas with two senses such as snails, Jivas with three senses such as ants, Jivas with four senses such as crabs and Jivas of fiv senses, such as higher animals and Jivas with six senses such as human beings. It is not necessary for me to point out and emphasise the fact that this forms a philosophical doctrine of Jaina thought.
This classification of Jivas is found in all the important Jaina philo- sophical works both in the Sanskrit and Tamil. It is but natural to conclude that this refers to the Jaina conception of life, and it goes without saying that the author was well-versed in Jaina philosophy. There is one other fact, not noticed by the research students, which must also be considered as an important evidence in favour of this conclusion.
In another Sotra in the. IV n liberation from Karmas, ie. But to every unbiased student who is acquainted with this Jaina tradition it would be clear that the refe- rence contained in this definition of the basic work is distinctly a reference to Sarvajnavitaraga as the fountain source of all knowledge.
From eill these it would be clear that the view that the author was a Jaina is more probable than the opposite view. The persons who tried to reject this suggestion have cited no serious argu- ment in support of their view. One critic refers to the fact that such a classification of Jlvas as is contained in this work is also contained in an obscure Tantra work.
But the verses referred to are not fully quoted. Here it is necessary to point out that this classification of Jivas based on sense-organs is not found in any of the other Darsanas or systems of Indian thought. It is peculiar to Jaina philosophy and Jaina philosophy alone. We may leave further discussion of this point to other competent scholars interested in such research.
It is enough for us to note, at this stage, that the composition of this work on grammar, one of the earliest Tamil works, was probably by a jaina author who was equally well-verspd in Sanskrit grammar and litera- ture. This forms the foundation of the later grammatical works in the Tamil language.
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This great work ot Temil grammar is assigned by tradidon to the second Saigam period. We know that all the existing Tamil works are generaUy assigned to the last and the third Sangam period. This, taken together with the recent explorations and discoveries in Mohanjadaro and Harappa, reveals a civilisation prior to that of the Aryans and gives us an idea of the high state of civilisation that must have been attained by the early Dravidians.
Since the extant Tamil literature is said mainly to belong to the 3rd Sangam period, most of the works that we are going to consider must be assigned to this period. This would probably mean from 2nd century B. Since the institution of Sangam or Academy is taken to be a doubtful entity, the term Sangam is merely used as a conventional term to indicate a certain period in the history of the Tamils. The classification of Tamil literature into three distinct periods natural, ethical and religious, suggested by Mr.
Sivaraja Pillai may be taken as a convenient frame-work, since it broadly represents the historical developments of Tamil literature. Some of the ethical works such as Kural and Naladiyar are freely quoted in the later literature. Hence it could not be altogether a mistake if we suppose that ethical literature seems to be earlier than the Kavya literature. In this group of ethical literature, the influence of Jaina teachers is prominently felt.
The two great works, Kural and Naladiyar, were the work of Jaina teachers who settled down in the Tamil country. The book derives its name KuraJ from the metre employed in its coifiposition. It is a work based on the doctrine of Ahimsa ; and throughout, you have the praising of this Ahiihsa-dharma and the criticism of views opposed to this. The Vaisnavaites claim it as their own. The Reverend Pope who translated this into English even suggests that it is the work of an author influenced by Christianity.
The fact that the different communities are vying with one another in their claim to the author- ship of this great work, is itself an indication of its great eminence and importance In the midst of all such various claimants we have the Jaina who maintains that it is the work of a great Jaina Acarya. We have referred to Sri Kundakundacarya as the chief of the Dravi- dian Sangha at southern Patalipura. We are not merely to depend upon this tradition to base our conclusions. We have sufficient internal evidence as well as circumstantial evidence to substantiate our view.
To any unbiased student who critically examines the contents of this work it would be quite clear that it is replete with the Ahimsa doctrine and therefore must be a product of Jaina imagination. Unbiased Tamil scholars who are entitled to pronounce an opinion on this point have expressed similar opinion as to the authorship of this work. This oppositon is plainly traceable to religious feeling. But even to this day we have this story of impaling tbe Jainas painted on the walls of the Madura temple, and annual festivals are conducted celebrating the defeat and destruction of religious rivals.
This would give us an insight into the attitude of the Tamil scholars towards the early Jainas. It is no secret, therefore, that they generally resent the very suggestion that this great ethical work must have been written by a Jaina scholar. According to one tradition the author of this work is said to be one Tiruvajluvar about whom nothing is known except what is concocted by the imagination of a modern writer who is responsible for the fictitious story relating to Tiruvaljuvar. That he is bom of a Candala woman, that he was a brother and contemporary of almost all great Tamil writers are some of the absurd instances mentioned in this life of Tiruvaljuvar.
To mention it is enough to discredit it. But the more enthusiastic among the modern Tamil scholars and modern Tamils have elevated him into a God-head and built temples in his name and conducted annual festivals analogous to the festivals associated with the other Hindu deities. And the author is claimed to be one of the Hindu deities and the work is considered to be the revelation by such a deity. From such quarters, one cannot ordinarily expect application of canons of historical criticism.
So much so, whenever any hypothesis is suggested as a result of critical examination of the contents, it is rejected with a vehemence characteristic of uninstructed religious zeal. Many so-called critics who have written something or other about this great work have been careful to maintain that peculiar intellectual attitude which Samuel Johnson had when he had to report the proceedings of the House of commons. He was particular to see that the Whigs had not the better of it When such is the general mentality of the Tamil students and when the real spirit of research adopting the scientific and historical method is still in its infancy, it is no wonder that we have nothing worth the name of Tamil literature.
Hence we are handicapped in our own attempt in presenting anything like a histoncal account of Jaiina literature. These refer mamly to fcL monarchs who were rather well known to Karnataka hrstory. Both of them belonged to the Rasprahota fanu y. The K'iiTpp. Oriental Translation Fund, New Series If so. IV He was the last of the Rastrakiitas of Manyakheta. We may now turn to the other two monarchs mentioned in the Kathaleosa. These were Arikesari and Mammana.
In it dwelt a king of the name of Arikesarin, who had a daughter named Madnavali. The name Arikesarin was borne by three rulers— two of whom belonged to the Calukya dynasty and the third to the Silahara royal House. This work was written in A. The third Arikesarin known to Karnataka history was the northern Silahara king of that name. He ruled over the whole of 1. Bangalore, See also Bhandarkar, Op. Fleet, Op. It is probably the last named king of tke Silakara family. In it there was a king named Mammana, :and he had a wife named ViramatL After narrating the story in connection with tkis monarch, tke author of tke KathaJeosa relates tkat tke soul of MammaUa was born in tkis very land of Bkarata in a country named Rakuli in tke city of P otana, as tke son of Dhammillasa, a cowherd, and Renuka, kis wifeA Tke king Mammana referred to here was no other than king Mummuni, or Mamvani, a MaMman- dalesvara of tke northern Silakara family, who reigned in A.
Op, eft, pp. I may observe in this connection that the author of this work, who speaks of these kings and cities of Karnataka, seems to have been very well acquainted with that country. BY Prof. Shrika9tha Sastri, M. Upadhye has brought to the notice of scholars a manuscript of the JambTtdvipa Prajnapati Bangraha of Padma- nandi. He also studied under Srivijaya Rsi Vijaya.
From these facts we can make out : — Viranandin King Isanti of BarSnagara. Thus Padmanandin was one of the names of Kundkunda. A third Padma- nandin surnamed Aviddha Karna was the disciple of Traikalayogi and the guru of Kulabhasana. Wintemilz Comm. X Viranandin the author of Candra Prahha Gariia was the disciple of Abhayanandin, the disciple of Gunanandin. Again another Viranandin was the disciple of Srutakirti, the disciple of VasupQjya, the disciple of Subhakirti. Sr Bl. There are several Sakalacandras. Ark, 99 E C.
Sr Bd 64, E. Ill ; LA. HI] the date op jambudvipa praji sumgraha. As regards the ruler Santi, there are several alternatives. VIll 3. XL Therefore Srivijaya can never be Samanta bhadra. A third Vira Santara Santeya ruled between — Srivijaya who was well versed in Parmagama and was a teacher of Padmanandin can be identified with the colleague of Vadiraja, who is said to have praised him. Vira- nandi is perhaps the same as the author of Chandraprabha Carita and earlier than Vsdiraja who praises him. Sakala Candra therefore identical with Sakala candra whose disciple Divakaranandin was the contem- porary of Vira Santara at Humca.
Perhaps Srinandin was another disciple. II An Unusual Form of a Jain Goddess. BY H; T. It is of Bronze or brass? It is of a a female, who is seated in lalUasana, on a padma-asana under a canopy of seven hooded cobra. The figure has four arms and in each of its hands is a cobra with its hood raised up.
The vehicle vahana associated with the figure is also shown, peeping out from behind the right leg of the figure, and taking a long stride. What it is, is difficult to make out, but seems to be a lion. See Plate. I am grateful to Rev. Heras, S. Most probably this Kaldfa-type ornament is a result of the evolution of the Umbrella marks found on Jain sculptures, which getting mixed up with the architectural ornament Kaluga took this shape.
IV 86 WKat can tkis figure be? Sudi 1 , a family goddess, Taring? This is suggested not only by fhe words gotra, etc. II— IV. Kusmandini, attendant to NeminStha No. PadmSvati, attendant to Parsvanatha No. Except Padmavati, none of these yahsinls is shown with a serpent-hood ; while not one of them is shown to hold a serpent in all the 4 hands. At most some of them bear serpents in two hands, viz. Others hold a serpent in one hand only. Our serpent goddess? In Ibid. IV Outside Jain iconography even this figure seems to be unique. The goddess Manasa, whose figures of the 10th 12th centuries are found from Bengal and who is still worshipped there, has a seven-or at times five hooded canopy ; sits mloMtascma or padmctsana pose, and holds a serpent in one hand or according to one text and some figures, in two hands also but never is she represented or described as bearing serpents in all the four hands.
Our figure is also different from the Buddhist serpent goddess Janguli. Unfortunately neither her iconographical description nor her illustration is published, so a comparison with her is not possible. See Bhattacharyya, Buddhist Iconography, pp. Referred to by Bhattasali, op. In conexion wrth this serpent goddess, it is interesting to remember with a view to drawing any inference a snake goddess of prehistoric times -the one found from the Paice of Minos at Knossos. She holds I snake each in her two outstretched hands, while a lion is seated on her tiara n another representon of hers, on a seal impression she stands beside a hon.
See Evans. The Palace of Minos, Vol. But as tradition and a right belief of an School of Thought, we have no right to ignore them. No doubt such has been the case with the personalities of the last three Tirthan- karas — 1 mean Arista NemI, Parsva and Mahavira, who were regarded mere mythical personages by the earlier writers of the Indian History. But the new discoveries, recently made in the Valley of Sind, Kathiawad and elsewhere and the Literary evi- dence as well, proves that the above named Jaina Tirthankarc s were real personages and it supports also, the claim of the Jainas for the remote antiquity of their religion.
Tirthankara, who was a cousin and a con- temporary of Krasna of the Mahabharat fame. Since Krasna is regar- ded as an historical person, there is no reason why we should deny the same privilege to the Jaina Tirthankara. Fuherer, on the strength of his sound knowledge about the Jaina Antiquities of Mathura, had already declared that Neminath, the 22nd.
Jaina Tirthankara was surely an historical person since Kyasnia has not been regarded 1. Introduction to the Jaina Sutras, S, B. IV as a mytKical individual. Pran Nath, mentions Nemi, the Lord of Mt. Raivata Girnar , the historicity of the Jaina Tirthankara is proved beyond doubt. How could it be ventured now as to pass Tirthankara Arista Nemi as a shadowy person, while he was treated in fact as a real person by ancient people. It is not only the case with Tirthankara Arista Nemi, but there is available sound evidence which vouchsafe the Jaina tradition of all the 24 Tirthankaras.
It is clear from the literary — Jain and non- Jain both — as well as epigraphical evidence that the first Preacher of Jainism in this cycle of Time was Sri Rsabha. Consequently we find the Jain tradition to hold good and so we cannot be justified in regarding the jaina belief of 24 Tirthankaras as myth only. Hence we are right in beginning the Historical period of the Jaina history with the 22nd Ththankara.
Epigrapfiia Indica, VoL 1, p. An'-ient Mid-Indian K? I, Foreword, p. The Times of India, 19tli March , p. The Jaina Antiquary, Vol. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Sobiety, July , pp. Smilh Jaina Stupa and other Antiquities of Mathura p. The learned reader might find important gaps in it of course, but as single-handed I am and even not well-equipped with the all required materials in a Research work, I hope, they will take pity on my shortcomings and oblige me by filling up the anticipated gaps.
However in assigning! May that day dawn soon-in the very near future? I know of course that there are a certain problem in the history of the Jaina Church, viz. However I shall try to handle these problems elsewhere. Bhadrapada Sukla DvSdasl. Krasna born at Matbura and was taken away to Brandavana, where he was reared up by Yasoda, the wife of cowherd Sunanda. Hari, XXXV, 19— Jarasindhu, the monarch of Magadha, having heard about the death of his son-in- law Kamsa at the hands of Krasna sent his sons with a great army against him but they were all defeated.
To be Continued. BY Kalipada Mitra, M. Vaidya in bis editions e. It has got many vaitiB. But this title was not confined to Asoka, it seems to have been used by his predecessors and successors. Tissa, the contemporary king of Ceylon had also this title. It will therefore appear that devmagi priya was a title of kings and 1. Smith — Asoka, p. Mpkerji — Asoka q.
IV princes. But he did not mention devamm priyah, nor did he foresee that such a word would be used in good or bad sense. KatySyana made tartik. Ramchandra c. Bhandarkar— pp. II, p. It could be applied to everybody — male or female. A god addressing another god would call him devanuppiya. A pubba-sangatiya deva is addressed as devanuppiya. In Supasanahacaria!
Sangamasuraranno devie Candalehae 1. Vaidyas Vivagasuyai? IV Even when one is in anger and threatens somebody, he addresses him as deomuppiya. Jugal KisEorMukhtar has corrected some views Pt. A short biography of Dandanayaka Bharat, the patron of Maha-Kavi Puspadanta has been given, pp Sitalprasadjl has compared the Jaina philosophy that of the Greek Philosopher Aristotle and have shown that how near the latter philosophy comes to former one.
Ill, pt. D- to A. Kamta Prasad Jain have collected and given references about Kampilya frorn the Jaina and non- Jaina literature and have described its present condition and situation. It is identified with the modem village Kampil in the Fatehgarh district of United Provinces. The Jaina paintings of Sittanavasala has been des- cribed by Mr.
Sureshchandra Jain B.
The Jaina Bibliography. Scbubring ; Hansische Universitat, Hamburg Germany. Lslaram Sastri, Surat. Medi JoxnisTfi by Prof. Hindi, GujarMl, Marathi, etc. Jagdisha Chandra Sastri, M. Jina-Sasana-Rahsya Hindi by Pt. Select Contents of Oriental Journals 1. Indian Culture. Jain, M. Thomas, M. XXIX No. Vidyanathun, B. Viswanatha, B. Lati-8am,hita of Rayamallara Sanskrit edited with Hindi translation by Pt. English :— 1. Mediaeval Jainism by Prof. A Saletore, M. Hindi, Qujarati, Marathi etc- 1.
Jra Htaai by Pt Jajaisb. Rayachandra Jain Granthamala, Bombay. Continued from VoL JF, No, lilt page 76, Turning from this digression to an examination of our work, we have to mention certain seilient facts contained in the book itself. Hence it need not be emphasised that the terms here mean slightly different from what they imply in the ordinary Hindu religious works.
Later Hindu religious systems, in as much as they are resting on the Vedic sacrificial ritualism, cannot completely throw overboard the prac- tice of animal sacrifice enjoined in the Vedas. The term Dharma could mean, therefore, to them only Varnairama-dharma based upon Vedic sacrifice. IV beginning of tbe work, in the chapter on Dharma, tbe autbor gives this as his own view that it is far better and more virtuous to abstain from killing and eating any animal than to perform 1 sacrifices.
This one single verse is enough to point out that the author would not have acquiesced in any form of such sacrificial ritualism. In another section devoted to vegetarian food the author dis- tinctly condemns the Bauddha principle of purchasing meat from the butcher. Buddhists who offer lip service to the doctrine of Ahiihsa console themselves by saying that they are not to kill with their own hands but may purchase meat from slaughter-house.
It is maintained by a well-known Tamil scholar living, that the work is a faithful translation of the Dharmaiastra by Bodhayana. Though very many Sanskrit words are found in this work and that from among the traditional doctrines , some are also treated therein, still it would not be accurate to main- ' tain that it is merely an echo of what appeared in the Sanskrit litera- ture because many of these doctrines are re-interpreted and re- onphasised in the light of Ahiihsa doctrine.
It is enough to motion only two points. A cursory glance at the corresponding chapter in the Kural will convince any reader that Dharma here means quite a different. This Tamil work is in Viruttam metre, consisting of four lines. We may end this discussion by saying that this great ethical work is specially composed for the purpose of inculcating the principle of Ahiihsa in all its multifarious aspects, probably by a great Jaina scholar of eminence about the first century of Christian era.
This great ethical work, which contains the essence of Tamil wisdom, consists of three parts and of 1 33 chapters. Each chapter contains 1 0 verses. Thus we have 1 verses in the form of couplets. It has three or four important commentaries. Of these, one is by the great commentator Naccinarkkiniyar. It is supposed to be, according to the Jaina tradition, but is unfortunately lost to the world. Recently another commentary by Manakku- davar was published.
Students of Tamil literature entertain the hope of obtaining and publishig the commentary by the great Naccinarkkiniyar. But up to the present there has not been any trace of it. The work is translated into almost all the European languages, the very good English translation being the work of Rev. This great work together with the other work Naladiyar, of which we shall speak presently, must have been Important factors in shaping the character and ideals of the Teimil people.
Speaking of these two ethical masterpieces. IV" 1 :io5 They are the fore-most among die peoples of India, and the Kural and Naladi have helped to make them so. Naladiyar means a qaatram or metre. The work consists of quatrains and is also ca led the Velalar Vedam, the Bible of the cultivators. It is not the work ot a single author. The tradition supposes that each verse is by a separate Jaina monk. When the period of famine was over they wanted to return to their country, while the king desired to retain these scholars at his court. At last the ascetics resolved to depart secretly without t e now ledge of the king.
Thus they left in a body one night. These were collected by the order of the king and this collection is known by the name Naladiyar.